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Ecuador profile
Cotopaxi in Andes is highest active volcano in world
Ecuador history
What is now Ecuador formed part of the northern Inca Empire until the Spanish conquest in 1533. Quito became a seat of Spanish colonial government in 1563 and part of the Viceroyalty of New Granada in 1717. The territories of the Viceroyalty - New Granada (Colombia), Venezuela, and Quito - gained their independence between 1819 and 1822 and formed a federation known as Gran Colombia. When Quito withdrew in 1830, the traditional name was changed in favor of the "Republic of the Equator." Between 1904 and 1942, Ecuador lost territories in a series of conflicts with its neighbors. A border war with Peru that flared in 1995 was resolved in 1999. Although Ecuador marked 30 years of civilian governance in 2004, the period was marred by political instability. Protests in Quito contributed to the mid-term ouster of three of Ecuador's last four democratically elected Presidents. In late 2008, voters approved a new constitution, Ecuador's 20th since gaining independence. General elections, under the new constitutional framework, were held in April 2009, and voters re-elected President Rafael CORREA.
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Conventional long form: Republic of Ecuador

Conventional short form: Ecuador

Local long form: Republica del Ecuador

Local short form: Ecuador
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Ecuador's capital city is Quito
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Ecuador Constitution:

20 October 2008;

this is Ecuador's 20th constitution
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Ecuador population growth rate: 1.419%
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Ecuador highest point: Chimborazo 6,267 m
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Ecuador lowest point: Pacific Ocean 0 m
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About 5% of Ecuador's land is arable.
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Napo River is the Longest River in Ecuador
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Ecuador birth rate is 20 births/1,000 population
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Ecuador infant mortality rate is 19 deaths/1,000 live births
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Ecuador fertility rate is 2.33 children born/woman
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Ecuador climate:

tropical along coast, becoming cooler inland at higher elevations;

tropical in Amazonian jungle lowlands
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Top 10 cities of Ecuador with populations (2012 est.) are:
1. Guayaquil: 2,600,000
2. Quito: 2,100,000
3. Cuenca: 550,000
4. Santo Domingo de los Colorados: 305,000
5. Machala: 240,000
6. DurĂ¡n: 235,000
7. Portoviejo: 225,000
8. Manta: 217,000
9. Loja: 185,000
10. Ambato: 178,000
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Ecuador ethnic groups:

mestizo (mixed Amerindian and white) - 71.9%
Montubio - 7.4%
Afroecuadorian - 7.2%
Amerindian - 7%
white - 6.1%
other - 0.4%
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Ecuador Exports:

petroleum
bananas
cut flowers
shrimp
cacao
coffee
wood
fish
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Ecuador Imports:

industrial materials
fuels and lubricants
nondurable consumer goods
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unicameral National Assembly or Asamblea Nacional (124 seats; members are elected through a party-list proportional representation system to serve four-year terms)

Administrative Divisions:
24 provinces (provincias, singular - provincia)

1. Azuay
2. Bolivar
3. Canar
4. Carchi
5. Chimborazo
6. Cotopaxi
7. El Oro
8. Esmeraldas
9. Galapagos
10. Guayas
11. Imbabura
12. Loja
13. Los Rios
14. Manabi
15. Morona-Santiago
16. Napo
17. Orellana
18. Pastaza
19. Pichincha
20. Santa Elena
21. Santo Domingo de los Tsachilas
22. Sucumbios
23. Tungurahua
24. Zamora-Chinchipe
Political parties and leaders:
Alianza PAIS movement - Rafael Vicente CORREA Delgado

Breakaway Party - Martha ROLDOS

Institutional Renewal and National Action Party (PRIAN) - Alvaro NOBOA

Pachakutik Plurinational Unity Movement - New Country (MUPP-NP) - Rafael ANTUNI

Patriotic Society Party (PSP) - Lucio GUTIERREZ Borbua

Popular Democratic Movement (MPD) - Luis VILLACIS

Roldosist Party (PRE) - Abdala BUCARAM Pulley, director

Social Christian Party (PSC) - Pascual DEL CIOPPO

Socialist Party

Warrior's Spirit Movement - Jaime NEBOT